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Urinary incontinence is most commonly caused by urethral sphincter incompetence. It is most common in large breed, spayed female dogs (11%–20% incidence) but may be seen in intact females, male dogs, and cats. Estradiol concentrations decrease after ovariohysterectomy in bitches, resulting in deterioration of urethral closure within 3–6 months.

Currently, there are no approved drugs to treat incontinence in animals, and most of the human products traditionally used have been removed from the market because of toxicity concerns. Some estrogen compounds and α-adrenergic drugs may still be available to veterinarians through compounding pharmacies.


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